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History of TLS and SSL


Transport Layer Security (TLS)
A slightly modified version of Secure Sockets Layer SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force ) [RFC 2246]. TLS uses HMAC for MAC, additional alert codes, different digest functions and different set of encryption algorithm.

A simplified version of SSL, one that will allow us to get a big-picture understanding of the why and how of SSL. We will refer to this simplified version of SSL as “almost-SSL.”

Almost-SSL (and SSL) has three phases: handshake, key derivation, and data transfer.

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TLS Transport Layer Security


Transport Layer Security (TLS)

A slightly modified version of Secure Sockets Layer SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force ) [RFC 2246]. TLS uses HMAC for MAC, additional alert codes, different digest functions and different set of encryption algorithm.

The SSL protocol was originally designed by Netscape, but the basic ideas behind securing TCP had predated Netscape’s work (for example, see Woo [Woo 1994]). Since its inception, SSL has enjoyed broad deployment. SSL is supported by all popular Web browsers and Web servers, and it is used by essentially all Internet commerce sites (including Amazon, eBay, Yahoo!, MSN, and so on).

Tens of billions of dollars are spent over SSL every year.

In fact, if you have ever purchased anything over the Internet with your credit card, the communication between your browser and the server for this purchase almost certainly went over SSL. (You can identify that SSL is being used by your browser when the URL begins with https: rather than http.)

SSL addresses these issues by enhancing TCP with confidentiality, data integrity, server authentication, and client authentication. SSL is often used to provide security to transactions that take place over HTTP. However, because SSL secures TCP, it can be employed by any application that runs over TCP.


File Transfer Technology on This Generation


Now, everything is technology based and we’re dependable on technology. No one can walk or go forward except technology. But, all technology jobs are so creative, large-scale size and so difficult that many people, non technical never understand that. And, this large-scale size file sometimes difficult to carry through website, when we don’t get any flash drive or tinny size flash disk.

On this time is technology generation and there have many file transfer base website that easily can share or send your big file in a few minutes.

” WeTransfer “ is a such type of  website that is the simplest way to send your big files around the world. you can easily upload your any big file that send to receiver email. The receiver can download that big file from the server of WeTransfer.

Weblink of WeTransfer |  https://wetransfer.com

 

https://wetransfer.com


Wide Area Wireless Access Technology : 3G and LTE


Telecommunications companies have made enormous investments in so-called third-generation (3G) wireless, which provides packet-switched wide-area wireless Internet access at speeds in excess of 1 Mbps.

But even higher-speed wide-area access technologies—a fourth-generation (4G) of wide-area wireless networks—are already being deployed. LTE ( for “Long-Term Evolution”—a candidate for Bad Acronym of the Year Award) has its roots in 3G technology, and can potentially achieve rates in excess of 10 Mbps.

LTE downstream rates of many 10s of Mbps have been reported in commercial deployments.


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and Cable


C7000_Channel_Bonding_Diagram_Transparent

Today, the two most prevalent types of broadband residential access are digital Subscriber line (DSL) and cable. A residence typically obtains DSL Internet access from the same local telephone company (telco) that provides its wired local phone access. Thus, when DSL is used, a customer’s telco is also its ISP, each customer’s DSL modem uses the existing telephone line (twisted Copper line) to exchange data with a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) located in the telco’s local central office (CO). The home’s DSL modem takes digital data and translates it to high frequency tones for transmission over telephone wires to the CO; the analog signals from many such houses are translated back into digital format at the DSLAM.

The residential telephone line carries both data and traditional telephone signals simultaneously, which are encoded at different frequencies:
• A high-speed downstream channel, in the 50 kHz to 1 MHz band
• A medium-speed upstream channel, in the 4 kHz to 50 kHz band
• An ordinary two-way telephone channel, in the 0 to 4 kHz band


8 Simple Ways to Boost Your Wi-Fi Network


8 Simple Ways to Boost Your Home Wi-Fi Network and there are a few tricks you can use boost your Wi-Fi signal. Here are a few of them.

1. Don’t Hide Your Router.

Most people hide their routers because they’re unsightly or in the way, but placing a router in a closet or in a cabinet AAfEgyvis a one-way ticket to slow Wi-Fi: Walls and doors can degrade and absorb signal strength. Find a central location in your home and put your router on a table or bookshelf. Because some routers are designed to project a Wi-Fi signal slightly downward, keeping it higher off the ground will evenly distribute a Wi-Fi signal throughout your home.

2. STAY AWAY FROM APPLIANCES AND METAL OBJECTS.
Microwaves, cordless telephones, flourescent lights, and even other

AAfEgz1routers in your neighbor’s home or apartment may interfere with your Wi-Fi signal. To reduce interference, place your router away from household appliances and set it to a different wireless channel and frequency. Using online tools—Acrylic Wi-Fi for Windows and AirGrab Wi-Fi Radar for Mac, for example—can help you find the right wireless channel with the least amount of interference. If you want an easier fix, most routers have an automatic option to find the best channel for your location.
You should also avoid placing your router near metal objects, which can absorb signal strength.

3. Reset On A Schedule…
It sounds simple enough, but a majority of tech support problems can be cleared up by simply resetting or rebooting your router or modem on a regular basis. (It’s also probably the first thing your Internet provider will ask you to do when you call to complain, so head them off at the pass.) And if you buy an outlet timer, you don’t even have to worry about it: Set the timer to reset your router once a day at an off-peak time.

4. Stagger Heavy Bandwidth Usage.

If too many people on your home network are using heavy bandwidth at the same time, like playing online video games, watching Netflix, and downloading movies and music from iTunes, then your entire network will slow down for everyone. Try to stagger heavy Internet use to make sure your home network is running fast and smooth for all users.

5. Buy A Repeater.

Most routers have a range of about 150 feet. If you live in a big house, devices and computers in rooms farthest away repeater for wifi routerfrom your router might have a hard time connecting to your home Wi-Fi network. The easiest fix to boost the signal in those rooms is to buy a Wi-Fi repeater, which can plug into any wall outlet and will increase a signal’s range and strength to the farthest parts of your home (with a corresponding decrease in internet speed for those connecting to the extender, but you can’t have everything).

If you’re feeling more ambitious (or cheap), you can turn an old router into a Wi-Fi repeater with a little bit of programming and hacking.
6. Password Protected Your Network

Wi-Fi speeds are slightly dependent on how many people are using it at one time, a strong password is key: It will ensure that only authorized people are using your network. Take advantage of the security already built into your router and select a password (or better yet, a passphrase) that is a hard-to-figure-out combination of letters, numbers, and symbols.

7. ADJUST YOUR ROUTER’S ANTENNA’S.
Most routers have two adjustable antennas on top. If yours are parallel, it’s time to switch things up and go perpendicular. Wi-Fi works best when signals are parallel to a device’s internal antenna, which are horizontal in laptops and vertical in desktop computers. Internal antennas vary in mobile devices, depending on how you’re holding them (in portrait or landscape mode). Keeping a router’s antennas perpendicular to each other will ensure a solid connection between your home network and your smartphones and laptops.

8. And Update Your Firmware Running firmware updates are annoying and time consuming. But if you have an older router, those updates ensure your router’s software is running at its best and most efficient. And remember: It’s best to buy a new router every seven or eight years.


SSL Protocol : Access Securing TCP Connections


Secure-Socket-Layer-parsdata

How cryptographic techniques can provide confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication to a specific application, namely, e-mail.

Cryptographic techniques can provide confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication to a specific application, namely, e-mail. In this section, we’ll drop down a layer in the protocol stack and examine how cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

A simplified version of SSL, one that will allow us to get a big-picture understanding of the why and how of SSL. We will refer to this simplified version of SSL as “almost-SSL.”

Almost-SSL (and SSL) has three phases: handshake, key derivation, and data transfer.

How cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A slightly modified version of SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF [RFC 4346].

The SSL protocol was originally designed by Netscape, but the basic ideas behind securing TCP had predated Netscape’s work. how cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A slightly modified version of SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF [RFC 4346].

Security

The SSL protocol addresses these issues by enhancing TCP with confidentiality, data integrity, server authentication, and client authentication.
SSL protocol is often used to provide security to transactions that take place over HTTP.

SSL provides a simple Application Programmer Interface (API) with sockets, which is similar and analogous to TCP’s API. When an application wants to employ SSL, the application includes SSL classes/libraries. As shown in Figure 8.24, although SSL technically resides in the application layer, from the developer’s perspective it is a transport protocol that provides TCP’s services enhanced with security services.


Difference between SOAP and RESTful Web Service in Java


SOAP and RESTful web services allows a client to query server for some information, but the way they are implemented and used is quite different.

The main difference between SOAP and REST is that former provides an standard of communication between client, server and other parties has restricted set of rules and format, while REST leverages ubiquity of HTTP protocol, in both client serversand, to allow them to communicate with each other regardless of their implementation.

In short, getting data from a RESTful web service requires less headache then getting data from a SOAP web service.

Since everybody is familiar with HTTP requests like GET or POST, its easy to understand and correlated how RESTful webservice are working and which URL of REST web service provides what kind of information. In SOAP, you need to understand lengthy WSDL document to find out right methods and right way to call them.

key differences between REST and SOAP style web services :SOAP vs REST in Java (1)

Here are some fundamental differences between REST, RESTful and SOAP Web Services, which will help you not only to understand these two key technologies better.

Short Form
REST stands for REpresntational State Transfer (REST) while SOAP Stands for Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).

Architecture style vs Protocol
REST is an architectural style, on which RESTFul web services are built, while SOAP is a standard devised to streamline communication between client and server in terms of format, structure and method.

Use of HTTP Protocol
REST takes full advantage of HTTP protocol, including methods

Speed
Processing a RESTful web service request is much faster than processing a SOAP message because you need to less parsing. Because of this reason RESTful web services are faster than SOAP web service.

Bandwidth
SOAP messages consumes more bandwidth than RESTFul messages for similar type of operation because XML is more verbose than JSON, standard way to send RESTFul messages and SOAP has additional header for every message, while RESTFul services utilizes HTTP header.

Security
Security in RESTful web service can be implemented using standard and traditional solutions for authorized access to certain web resources. While to implement security in SOAP based web services you need additional infrastructure in web to enable message or transport level security concerns.