RezwanAhmed & His Team || Software Engineer

NeTWORK TeCHNOLOGY ::

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [RFC 2131]. DHCP allows a host to obtain (be allocated) an IP address automatically. A network administrator can configure DHCP so that a given host receives the same IP address each time it connects to the network, or a host may be assigned a temporary IP address that will be different each time the host connects to the network. In addition to host IP address assignment, DHCP also allows a host to learn additional information, such as its subnet mask, the address of its first-hop router (often called the default gateway), and the address of its local DNS server.

DHCP’s ability to automate the network-related aspects of connecting a host into a network, it is often referred to as a plug-and-play protocol. This capability makes it very attractive to the network administrator who would otherwise have to perform these tasks manually!

DHCP is also enjoying widespread use in residential Internet access networks and in wireless LANs, where hosts join and leave the network frequently. Consider, for example, the student who carries a laptop from a dormitory room to a library to a classroom. It is likely that in each location, the student will be connecting into a new subnet and hence will need a new IP address at each location. DHCP is ideally suited to this situation, as there are many users coming and going, and addresses are needed for only a limited amount of time.


InterNET


Internet

The Internet is a computer network that interconnects hundreds of millions of computing devices throughout the world. We’ll use the public Internet, a specific computer network, as our principal vehicle for discussing computer networks and their protocols.

A Nuts-and-Bolts Description

Internet : Computing devices were primarily traditional desktop PCs, Linux workstations, and so-called servers that store and transmit information such as Web pages and e-mail messages. Increasingly, however, nontraditional Internet end systems such as laptop, Smartphone, tablets, TVs, gaming consoles, Web cams, automobiles, environmental sensing devices, picture frames, and home electrical and security systems are being connected to the Internet.

Indeed, the term computer network is beginning to sound a bit dated, given the many nontraditional devices that are being hooked up to the Internet. In Internet language, all of these devices are called hosts or end systems.


PING


PING

A ping test is a method of checking if the computer is connected to a network. It also determines the latency or delay between two computers. It is used to ensure that a host computer which your computer tries to access is operating. A ping test is a physical test to determine the natural frequency of an object or assembly.


5G : 5th Generation or 5G Technology Will Save Time


5th Generation or 5G Technology will deliver faster speeds and lower latency.
With 5G technology, movie downloads will decrease from 7 minutes to just 6 seconds. People will save 2 minutes and 20 seconds a day waiting for social media content to load, 7 minutes when downloading an HD movie, nearly 7 hours on large game downloads.

5G is like having high-powered Wi-Fi routers dispersed all over the city to function as the network nodes. So, your internet provider’s network will function more like your home network, but much faster.”

5G nodes can’t cover the same area as a cell tower but will transmit data at higher speeds. To make up for the reduced coverage area, companies will need to install more 5G nodes. 

 


Overview of the IPsec Protocol Suite


The IP security protocol, more commonly known as IPsec, provides security at the network layer. IPsec secures IP datagrams between any two network-layer entities, including hosts and routers. As we will soon describe, many institutions (corporations, government branches, non-profit organizations, and so on) use IPsec to create Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that run over the public Internet. 

In the IPsec Protocol Suite, there are two principal protocols: the Authentication Header (AH) protocol and the Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) protocol.

When a source IPsec entity (typically a host or a router) sends secure datagrams to a destination entity (also a host or a router), it does so with either the AH protocol or the ESP protocol.

The AH protocol provides source authentication and data integrity but does not provide confidentiality. The ESP protocol provides source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality.

Because confidentiality is often critical for VPN and other IPsec applications, the ESP protocol is much more widely used than the AH protocol. In order to de-mystify IPsec and avoid much of its complication, we will henceforth focus exclusively on the ESP protocol. Readers wanting to learn also about the AH protocol are encouraged to explore the RFCs and other online resources.

IP Sec Protocol Sructure Diagram

 


VPN – Virtual Private Network


 

VPN, Virtual Private Network – the institution’s interoffice traffic is sent over the public Internet rather than over a physically independent network. But to provide confidentiality, the inter-office traffic is encrypted before it enters the public Internet.

When a user connects to a VPN, a “tunnel” is created. This tunnel acts as a secure line of communication. The information passed through it can’t be read if intercepted because it has been encrypted. The VPN client on your computer and the VPN Server know the key to the encryption so data is only encrypted in transit, but instantly decipherable at the source and destination.

There has some best VPN software people use, when facing trouble in Internet or block any application services. All of these solid VPN software are :
1. Betternet VPN,
2. Hotspot Shield
3. Opera
4. TunnelBear
5. PureVPN
6. CyberGhost VPN


History of TLS and SSL


Transport Layer Security (TLS)
A slightly modified version of Secure Sockets Layer SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force ) [RFC 2246]. TLS uses HMAC for MAC, additional alert codes, different digest functions and different set of encryption algorithm.

A simplified version of SSL, one that will allow us to get a big-picture understanding of the why and how of SSL. We will refer to this simplified version of SSL as “almost-SSL.”

Almost-SSL (and SSL) has three phases: handshake, key derivation, and data transfer.


TLS Transport Layer Security


Transport Layer Security (TLS)

A slightly modified version of Secure Sockets Layer SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force ) [RFC 2246]. TLS uses HMAC for MAC, additional alert codes, different digest functions and different set of encryption algorithm.

The SSL protocol was originally designed by Netscape, but the basic ideas behind securing TCP had predated Netscape’s work (for example, see Woo [Woo 1994]). Since its inception, SSL has enjoyed broad deployment. SSL is supported by all popular Web browsers and Web servers, and it is used by essentially all Internet commerce sites (including Amazon, eBay, Yahoo!, MSN, and so on).

Tens of billions of dollars are spent over SSL every year.

In fact, if you have ever purchased anything over the Internet with your credit card, the communication between your browser and the server for this purchase almost certainly went over SSL. (You can identify that SSL is being used by your browser when the URL begins with https: rather than http.)

SSL addresses these issues by enhancing TCP with confidentiality, data integrity, server authentication, and client authentication. SSL is often used to provide security to transactions that take place over HTTP. However, because SSL secures TCP, it can be employed by any application that runs over TCP.


File Transfer Technology on This Generation


Now, everything is technology based and we’re dependable on technology. No one can walk or go forward except technology. But, all technology jobs are so creative, large-scale size and so difficult that many people, non technical never understand that. And, this large-scale size file sometimes difficult to carry through website, when we don’t get any flash drive or tinny size flash disk.

On this time is technology generation and there have many file transfer base website that easily can share or send your big file in a few minutes.

” WeTransfer “ is a such type of  website that is the simplest way to send your big files around the world. you can easily upload your any big file that send to receiver email. The receiver can download that big file from the server of WeTransfer.

Weblink of WeTransfer |  https://wetransfer.com

 

https://wetransfer.com


Wide Area Wireless Access Technology : 3G and LTE


Telecommunications companies have made enormous investments in so-called third-generation (3G) wireless, which provides packet-switched wide-area wireless Internet access at speeds in excess of 1 Mbps.

But even higher-speed wide-area access technologies—a fourth-generation (4G) of wide-area wireless networks—are already being deployed. LTE ( for “Long-Term Evolution”—a candidate for Bad Acronym of the Year Award) has its roots in 3G technology, and can potentially achieve rates in excess of 10 Mbps.

LTE downstream rates of many 10s of Mbps have been reported in commercial deployments.


Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and Cable


C7000_Channel_Bonding_Diagram_Transparent

Today, the two most prevalent types of broadband residential access are digital Subscriber line (DSL) and cable. A residence typically obtains DSL Internet access from the same local telephone company (telco) that provides its wired local phone access. Thus, when DSL is used, a customer’s telco is also its ISP, each customer’s DSL modem uses the existing telephone line (twisted Copper line) to exchange data with a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) located in the telco’s local central office (CO). The home’s DSL modem takes digital data and translates it to high frequency tones for transmission over telephone wires to the CO; the analog signals from many such houses are translated back into digital format at the DSLAM.

The residential telephone line carries both data and traditional telephone signals simultaneously, which are encoded at different frequencies:
• A high-speed downstream channel, in the 50 kHz to 1 MHz band
• A medium-speed upstream channel, in the 4 kHz to 50 kHz band
• An ordinary two-way telephone channel, in the 0 to 4 kHz band


8 Simple Ways to Boost Your Wi-Fi Network


8 Simple Ways to Boost Your Home Wi-Fi Network and there are a few tricks you can use boost your Wi-Fi signal. Here are a few of them.

1. Don’t Hide Your Router.

Most people hide their routers because they’re unsightly or in the way, but placing a router in a closet or in a cabinet AAfEgyvis a one-way ticket to slow Wi-Fi: Walls and doors can degrade and absorb signal strength. Find a central location in your home and put your router on a table or bookshelf. Because some routers are designed to project a Wi-Fi signal slightly downward, keeping it higher off the ground will evenly distribute a Wi-Fi signal throughout your home.

2. STAY AWAY FROM APPLIANCES AND METAL OBJECTS.
Microwaves, cordless telephones, flourescent lights, and even other

AAfEgz1routers in your neighbor’s home or apartment may interfere with your Wi-Fi signal. To reduce interference, place your router away from household appliances and set it to a different wireless channel and frequency. Using online tools—Acrylic Wi-Fi for Windows and AirGrab Wi-Fi Radar for Mac, for example—can help you find the right wireless channel with the least amount of interference. If you want an easier fix, most routers have an automatic option to find the best channel for your location.
You should also avoid placing your router near metal objects, which can absorb signal strength.

3. Reset On A Schedule…
It sounds simple enough, but a majority of tech support problems can be cleared up by simply resetting or rebooting your router or modem on a regular basis. (It’s also probably the first thing your Internet provider will ask you to do when you call to complain, so head them off at the pass.) And if you buy an outlet timer, you don’t even have to worry about it: Set the timer to reset your router once a day at an off-peak time.

4. Stagger Heavy Bandwidth Usage.

If too many people on your home network are using heavy bandwidth at the same time, like playing online video games, watching Netflix, and downloading movies and music from iTunes, then your entire network will slow down for everyone. Try to stagger heavy Internet use to make sure your home network is running fast and smooth for all users.

5. Buy A Repeater.

Most routers have a range of about 150 feet. If you live in a big house, devices and computers in rooms farthest away repeater for wifi routerfrom your router might have a hard time connecting to your home Wi-Fi network. The easiest fix to boost the signal in those rooms is to buy a Wi-Fi repeater, which can plug into any wall outlet and will increase a signal’s range and strength to the farthest parts of your home (with a corresponding decrease in internet speed for those connecting to the extender, but you can’t have everything).

If you’re feeling more ambitious (or cheap), you can turn an old router into a Wi-Fi repeater with a little bit of programming and hacking.
6. Password Protected Your Network

Wi-Fi speeds are slightly dependent on how many people are using it at one time, a strong password is key: It will ensure that only authorized people are using your network. Take advantage of the security already built into your router and select a password (or better yet, a passphrase) that is a hard-to-figure-out combination of letters, numbers, and symbols.

7. ADJUST YOUR ROUTER’S ANTENNA’S.
Most routers have two adjustable antennas on top. If yours are parallel, it’s time to switch things up and go perpendicular. Wi-Fi works best when signals are parallel to a device’s internal antenna, which are horizontal in laptops and vertical in desktop computers. Internal antennas vary in mobile devices, depending on how you’re holding them (in portrait or landscape mode). Keeping a router’s antennas perpendicular to each other will ensure a solid connection between your home network and your smartphones and laptops.

8. And Update Your Firmware Running firmware updates are annoying and time consuming. But if you have an older router, those updates ensure your router’s software is running at its best and most efficient. And remember: It’s best to buy a new router every seven or eight years.


SSL Protocol : Access Securing TCP Connections


Secure-Socket-Layer-parsdata

How cryptographic techniques can provide confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication to a specific application, namely, e-mail.

Cryptographic techniques can provide confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication to a specific application, namely, e-mail. In this section, we’ll drop down a layer in the protocol stack and examine how cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

A simplified version of SSL, one that will allow us to get a big-picture understanding of the why and how of SSL. We will refer to this simplified version of SSL as “almost-SSL.”

Almost-SSL (and SSL) has three phases: handshake, key derivation, and data transfer.

How cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A slightly modified version of SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF [RFC 4346].

The SSL protocol was originally designed by Netscape, but the basic ideas behind securing TCP had predated Netscape’s work. how cryptography can enhance TCP with security services, including confidentiality, data integrity, and end-point authentication. This enhanced version of TCP is commonly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A slightly modified version of SSL version 3, called Transport Layer Security (TLS), has been standardized by the IETF [RFC 4346].

Security

The SSL protocol addresses these issues by enhancing TCP with confidentiality, data integrity, server authentication, and client authentication.
SSL protocol is often used to provide security to transactions that take place over HTTP.

SSL provides a simple Application Programmer Interface (API) with sockets, which is similar and analogous to TCP’s API. When an application wants to employ SSL, the application includes SSL classes/libraries. As shown in Figure 8.24, although SSL technically resides in the application layer, from the developer’s perspective it is a transport protocol that provides TCP’s services enhanced with security services.


Difference between SOAP and RESTful Web Service in Java


SOAP and RESTful web services allows a client to query server for some information, but the way they are implemented and used is quite different.

The main difference between SOAP and REST is that former provides an standard of communication between client, server and other parties has restricted set of rules and format, while REST leverages ubiquity of HTTP protocol, in both client serversand, to allow them to communicate with each other regardless of their implementation.

In short, getting data from a RESTful web service requires less headache then getting data from a SOAP web service.

Since everybody is familiar with HTTP requests like GET or POST, its easy to understand and correlated how RESTful webservice are working and which URL of REST web service provides what kind of information. In SOAP, you need to understand lengthy WSDL document to find out right methods and right way to call them.

key differences between REST and SOAP style web services :SOAP vs REST in Java (1)

Here are some fundamental differences between REST, RESTful and SOAP Web Services, which will help you not only to understand these two key technologies better.

Short Form
REST stands for REpresntational State Transfer (REST) while SOAP Stands for Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).

Architecture style vs Protocol
REST is an architectural style, on which RESTFul web services are built, while SOAP is a standard devised to streamline communication between client and server in terms of format, structure and method.

Use of HTTP Protocol
REST takes full advantage of HTTP protocol, including methods

Speed
Processing a RESTful web service request is much faster than processing a SOAP message because you need to less parsing. Because of this reason RESTful web services are faster than SOAP web service.

Bandwidth
SOAP messages consumes more bandwidth than RESTFul messages for similar type of operation because XML is more verbose than JSON, standard way to send RESTFul messages and SOAP has additional header for every message, while RESTFul services utilizes HTTP header.

Security
Security in RESTful web service can be implemented using standard and traditional solutions for authorized access to certain web resources. While to implement security in SOAP based web services you need additional infrastructure in web to enable message or transport level security concerns.

 


IPV4 vs IPV6 |


Internet Gets Rewired for the Future with IPV6.

your computer or mobile may not even be using internet protocol IPv6 at all. It’s slowly filtering in alongside the IPv4 system, and it will be a long time before it fully takes over. But since flipping on the switch today, engineers have guaranteed that the Internet can get much, much bigger.

network cables RJ45 connected to a switch

network cables RJ45 connected to a switch

An Internet Protocol Version 6 address (IPv6 address) is a numerical label that is used to identify a network interface of a computer or other network node participating in an IPv6 computer network. IPv6 contains 2^128 individual IP unique addresses
IPv6 also allows “quality of service.” Packets of video data, for example, can specify that they need special handling to arrive without delay. IPv6 has other benefits. Encryption security is built-in, instead of being added on as it currently is. IPv6 includes tech to hide the addresses from snoops, however. 
With IPv6, everything can have a unique number, making it easier and quicker for data to find its way around the Internet. In comparison to IPv4’s 4.3 billion IP addresses, IPv6 can assign about 340 trillion trillion.
IPV4 Deployed on 1981, but IPV4 update version IPV6 deployed in 1999.
Difference between IPV4 v’s IPV6
IPV4 vs IPV6

3G Network Big Security Threat : Communication Apps. Cannot Monitor and Tracking


Bangladeshi all media and many people said that popular mobile voice and messaging services Viber, Tango, WhatsApp have resumed.

But, Intelligence asks BTRC not to allocate remaining 3G spectrum. Because, In the 3G Network services has emerged as a big threat for the security because Smartphone-based Communication applications cannot be monitored and tracked.

Also, BTRC cannot switch off these social apps, who’re expertise in ICT.

You can stop these social apps by using 4G technology and block the International Gateway of the country.

Country people think that Gov’t stop the WhatsApp Service but actually, that’s not. From the last 22January, 2013, WhatsApp Inc was shut down for 24 hours, get to know from the WhatsApp Inc Office, California, US.

” Country go Digital but some of our digital Intelligence stupidity told that stop communication apps, but one thing forget that there have lots of communication apps.


Reset Your WiFi Router and Why…


Sometimes you may can face a problem that Wi-Fi Router fail to get proper signal.

Then you must need to reset the Wi-Fi router. You can watch – reset pushing a pin button or point behind the Wi-Fi router. Sometimes, the Wi-Fi router cannot work properly for a long time running and huge warm. Moreover, people using bit torrent too much, for that router cannot perform after a long time usages. So, for that need always reset after 2 days. Also try to switch off of the Wi-Fi router, when shouldn’t use the internet.    resetrouter


Pocket Wi-Fi router now available in Bangladesh


Pocket Wi-Fi Router is good for travelers, that moreover change their location in a different time. Also, people can use this Pocket Wi-Fi at Home or any location, from any place of a country. Use that pocket Wi-Fi in Office or University through using the wifi password. Similarly, can use the Pocket Wi-Fi by an operator sim to get the wifi internet.

Such type of pocket router is TP Link Pocket Wi-Fi Router and HUAWEI E5331 (3G) WiFi Pocket Router. But TP Link is the most preferred and trustful brand that provide a Good range.

Also, People can use any service provider’s pocket Wi-Fi router such as Teletalk Pocket Wi-Fi Router, Citycell Pocket Wi-Fi Router, GrameenPhone Pocket Wi-Fi Router, Ollo Pocket Wifi Router. 1280_m5350-3

# TP Link Price Range Start from 4000 BDT
# Huawei Mobile Wifi Router E5331 Price 4,500 BDT
# D-LINK MOBILE AND POCKET ROUTER DWR-730B Price 5,000 BDT
—–
All Pocket Wi-Fi Router is Built In feature —
*o* 3G modem – No other bulky devices required.
*o* Network Type :: HSPA+/HSUPA/HSDPA/UMTS
*o* 2.4-2.4835GHz Frequency.
*o* HSPA+ supported with up to 21.6Mbps download and 5.76Mbps upload speeds
*o* Supports up to 10 users simultaneously
*o* OLED display provides a intuitive view of the device’s working status.


Wifi – Make Wifi Zone Through WiFI Router by Cable Internet and Improve Signal


On the upcoming time, people should be accessed Wifi in everywhere, however, now more people interacting within WiFi.

Now I like to say how you should build Wifi zone by using Wifi Router or Wifi Switch. For this, you must need only a wifi router, absolutely 150 Mbps or 350 Mbps Wireless router. You will get unbelievable high speed wireless service or wifi service by modifying this broadband connection, that will use accordingly in Cell (must have wifi option), Smartphone or laptop and desktop PC, much more.

1. Wifi Router 150 Mbps or 350 Mbps

At first, generally anyone can build WiFi by using your Broadband or Wire Connection, that is very easy process. When you will buy WiFi Router of any company (example: TPLink), then visit the product’s weblink and select quick install. Once the installation process complete, then if you have saved your settings and know your way around your routers setup menu.IMAG0638

Signal strength can be affected by moving the router, new metal structures like radiators, pipe work etc, or recently installed electrical or electronic appliances in the vicinity of the router (microwave oven, TV and so on). However, channel congestion is easily the biggest problem, due to neighbour’s Wi-Fi systems, other wireless devices (keyboards, mice, cordless telephones, central heating control etc). Changing the wireless channel often helps, and this is done through the router’s configuration menu, which you access through a browser on a PC or other device connected to your network.

Details of how to do this along with your router’s IP address will be in the router’s instruction manual. The trick is to find an unused channel and the easy way to do that, if you have access to an Android smartphone or tablet, is a free app from Google Play, called Wi-Fi Analyzer. This has a graphical display showing all nearby networks, and the channels they are using.


Hash Function| HASH Tag


HASH Function / HASH Tag 
In the social site and web blog, or online newspaper,
We everyone use hash (#) tag But many people have no idea about this (#) HASH Tag. Actually, this is a Digital Signature and function, which can bear a long digest of a message in a short form, fixed – length bit string but standard.

(#) Hash functions are an essential part of digital signature schemes and message authentication codes. Hash [#] functions are also widely used for other cryptographic applications, which can access all information among many networks.

example : #World
When you will search any news or information, just type #world or #WORLD. Then you will find world related all news and information.
(to be continued)

Online privacy: how secure


most web users, unfamiliar with encryption algorithms and open-source code, these precautions will seem extreme

# Passwords: don’t use the same one repeatedly. Create a complex one with upper- and lower-case letters, numbers and characters such as $%&!. Perhaps use the initial letter of each word in a sentence to help you remember it. Differentiate it for each application by introducing letters from the site name, for instance. Or use a management app such as LastPass or DirectPass.

# Security or password reset questions: this is one of the easiest ways to hack an account. If you are asked to provide answers to “security questions”, consider whether the answers are really secure – ie that you are the only person who can knows. If you can create your own questions, do. If you are obliged to answer standard questions such as “first school” or “first pet” remember the answer doesn’t have to be true, it only has to be something you can remember.

# Data : When you will use Outside PC or Internet Cafe PC, always save all data into Desktop, then delete all data from Desktop & Recyle bin. But, better try to save into Flash Disk directly.

# Social media: take advantage of security features on Facebook and Twitter such as two-factor authentication and notification of log-in attempts from unknown devices. Don’t share too much. For example, don’t mention your “porn star name” (name of first pet plus mother’s maiden name), which is exactly the kind of information needed to reset email and bank accounts.

# Email: all free email and webmail services (such as Hotmail and Gmail) are vulnerable, so to communicate privately buy a service such as Fastmail that is not based in the US. At the very least, install two-step verification on Gmail.

# Search engines: try a smaller one, to avoid tracking of search history.

# Smartphones: these are particularly exposed, so be aware that no messages are truly secure. You could connect your smartphone to a cloud service that lets you “remote wipe” if need be – but control what you sync up to iCloud if you wish to remain truly private.

# Cloud services: all of the Dropbox, iCloud and Evernote are open to surveillance, so encrypt information you don’t want to share.

# The tangled web: as we become creatures of the Smartphone, the tablet and the app, and as services, sites and accounts become ever more interconnected, remember that if one is breached others become unsafe. Keep track of which services you give permission to access others, and revoke this if one is compromised or you stop using it.

Even these security measures require both expertise and commitment, and Hancock fears that privacy concerns will frighten some users, particularly older people, away from the internet. “I get awfully frustrated with people of my generation who won’t engage with the web,” she says. “It’s a miracle and I embrace it.”

The scheme underlines how technology can be used as a creative tool, Hancock says. She believes the internet can help foster solutions to social problems through a myriad of small schemes and initiatives, but only if it remains accessible – and safe – for everyone.


25th Anniversary|Happy Birthday To Internet Gateway https://www.


And, many people forget to say ‘ Happy Birthday To Internet Gateway https://www. – World Wide Web. ‘

This week marks the 25th birthday of an invention of https://www. 25 Years ago, March 12, 1989 – Internet was Invented. For that, possible can surf entire Virtual world with one click from Any Place of the world & can access all weblink, Social Web, Email, Searching, Online Chat and can do unlimited online base jobs for this INTERNET. But, All Credits for the British scientist Tim Berners-Lee for invention of Internet.


hotspots/Virtual Routers and Ad-hoc Wi-Fi Transmission


Wi-Fi also allows communications directly from one computer to another without an access point intermediary. This is called Ad hoc Wi-Fi transmission. This wireless Ad hoc network mode has proven popular with multi-player handheld game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, Playstation Portable, digital cameras and other consumer electronics devices. Some devices can also share their Internet connection using ad-hoc, becoming hotspots or “virtual routers”.


Data Throughput


Throughput refers to how much data can be transferred from one location to another in a given amount of time. It is used to measure the performance of hard drives and RAM, as well as Internet and network connections.

For example, a hard drive that has a maximum transfer rate of 100 Mbps has twice the throughput of a drive that can only transfer data at 50 Mbps. Similarly, a 54 Mbps wireless connection has roughly 5 times as much throughput as a 11 Mbps connection. However, the actual data transfer speed may be limited by other factors such as the Internet connection speed and other network traffic. Therefore, it is good to remember that the maximum throughput of a device or network may be significantly higher than the actual throughput achieved in everyday use.