ATM or Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a network technology based on transferring data in cells or packets of a fixed size. The cell used with ATM is relatively small compared to units used with older technologies. The small, constant cell size allows ATM equipment to transmit video, audio, and computer data over the same network, and assure that no single type of data hogs the line.
Some people think that ATM holds the answer to the Internet bandwidth problem, but others are sceptical. ATM creates a fixed channel, or route, between two points whenever data transfer begins. This differs from TCP/IP, in which messages are divided into packets and each packet can take a different route from source to destination. This difference makes it easier to track and bill data usage across an ATM network, but it makes it less adaptable to sudden surges in network traffic.
When purchasing ATM service, you generally have a choice of four different types of service:
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
Available Bit Rate (ABR)
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Specifies a fixed Bit rate so that data is sent in a steady stream. This is analogous to a leased line.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
Provides a specified throughput capacity but data is not sent evenly. This is a popular choice for voice and videoconferencing data.
Available Bit Rate (ABR)
Provides a guaranteed minimum capacity but allows data to be busted at higher capacities when the network is free.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
UBR does not guarantee any throughput levels. This is used for applications, such as file transfer, that can tolerate delays.
DDR2 and DDR3 memory controllers developed by GDA Technologies, Inc. are known for their highly efficient and configurable design for bandwidth applications like DSP processors, Video codec, graphics and general interfaces. Apart from being compliant with JEDEC DDR2/3 Standards, the other major highlights of the DDR2 & DDR3 Memory Controllers are Pipeline architecture to increase operational efficiency, flexible and programmable address mapping, and programmable timing parameters for RCD, RP, RFC, FAW, CCD, WR, RTP, RRD, MRD, WL, DAL.
Roaming for Pre-Paid customers is a more recent development and involves additional investment by operators. This is because Roaming signaling and billing systems are more complex for Pre-Paid services than they are for post-paid services.
For Pre-Paid Roaming, in addition to the initial authentication step, the call-related data must be exchanged in real-time between the visited network and the home network by using a special platform (called CAMEL – Customized Applications for Mobile networks Enhanced Logic), to prevent the balance of the roaming customer’s account from becoming overdrawn.
For Post-Paid Roaming, when the user first switches their phone on, the visited network checks in real-time whether the home network authenticates the customer and authorizes its use abroad. But the data records (CDRs) with the details on each SMS and data session are sent to the home operator with some delay (up to several days).
Six Sigma is a methodology to manage process variations that use data and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company’s operational performance.
It works by identifying & eliminating defects in manufacturing and service-related processes. The maximum permissible defects is 3.4 per one million opportunities.
Domain Analysis ≡ Often the first step in attempting to design a new piece of software, whether it is an addition to an existing software, a new application, a new subsystem or a whole new system, is, what is generally referred to as “Domain Analysis”. Assuming that the developers (including the analysts) are not sufficiently knowledgeable in the subject area of the new software, the first task is to investigate the so-called “domain” of the software. The more knowledgeable they are about the domain already, the less work required. Another objective of this work is to make the analysts, who will later try to elicit and gather the requirements from the area experts, speak with them in the domain’s own terminology, facilitating a better understanding of what is being said by these experts. If the analyst does not use the proper terminology it is likely that they will not be taken seriously, thus this phase is an important prelude to extracting and gathering the requirements.
Software Elements Analysis ≡ The most important task in creating a software product is extracting the requirements. Customers typically have an abstract idea of what they want as an end result, but not what software should do. Incomplete, ambiguous, or even contradictory requirements are recognized by skilled and experienced software engineers at this point. Frequently demonstrating live code may help reduce the risk that the requirements are incorrect.
Scope Analysis ≡ Also known as Requirement Analysis. Once the general requirements are gleaned from the client, an analysis of the scope of the development should be determined and clearly stated. This is often called a scope document. Certain functionality may be out of scope of the project as a function of cost or as a result of unclear requirements at the start of development. If the development is done externally, this document can be considered a legal document so that if there are ever disputes, any ambiguity of what was promised to the client can be clarified.
Specification ≡ Specification is the task of precisely describing the software to be written, possibly in a rigorous way. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development. Specifications are most important for external interfaces that must remain stable. A good way to determine whether the specifications are sufficiently precise is to have a third party review the documents making sure that the requirements are logically sound.
Testing ≡ Testing software is an integral and important part of the software development process. This part of the process ensures that bugs are recognized as early as possible
Deployment ≡ After the code is appropriately tested, it is approved for release and sold or otherwise distributed into a production environment.
Software Training and Support ≡ A large percentage of software projects fail because the developers fail to realize that it doesn’t matter how much time and planning a development team puts into creating software if nobody in an organization ends up using it. People are often resistant to change and avoid venturing into an unfamiliar area, so as a part of the deployment phase, it is very important to have training classes for new clients of your software.
when any body want to save or Store any file In the On-line Storage, then It is more secure than General save in any Pc r CD or Disk Drive. Also files are stay safely & get free from lost or crash PC.
In web service Email is more attractive Storage media. but it is more problem save the important file by log in the mail account. but there have a way to store the file in The Gmail without enter the Gmail Account.
but for get this service need an extra Software Backup To EMail
when any user install this Software, then User give the User name & Password of Gmail, then the Mouse over any file or folder & click on Backup To EMail by the right button of Mouse, File should be save automatically. The Folder types File save as Zip file & the file go to the mail inbox.
but if wish to ave other place of the mail, then it should be done by filtering.
This software found in this website :: http://backup2e.com/
requirement need :: Java must be stay or install in the PC..
Before discussing some of the issues it is necessary to outline briefly some basics about the way disks are organized.
Just a Few years ago…….
- Lowest Prices,
- Better Performance,
- Easily Handle or move from one place to another,
- New Stylish Design,
- More Facility in a Laptop or Notebook PC such as 3G/4G network, WI-Fi, blue tooth, wireless net where this is absent in Desktop PC,
- long time Battery life.
some brand laptop is best they are ::
AIX :: Advanced Inter-Active Executive
AIX that mean Advanced Inter-Active Executive. AIX is a version of Unix developed by IBM Corporation. AIX use in Different Enterprise Server for many & more Security facilities. This Application Diver Give more helpful to the System Administrator. Also AIX Given The Permission to the Administrator for Entry in CPU. Memory, Disk Other Item for Different Works. It operate in IBM 64 bit operating system & beside operate 32 Bit Operating System.
It also now support to operate LinuX Operating System & Java 2 based Software.
Call Detail Record system. This is the system that where record of A Voice Call or an SMS, with details such as origin, destination, duration, time of Day, amount charged for each CALL or msg. ROAMING Partner must share CDR for accurate inter operator Settlement.
GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE. A packet – based mobile data service, mostly used to access e-mail & the internet from Mobile Phones.
Handset Internet :
Using mobile devices to access internet services such as Web pages, Web 2.0 applications, music downloads and video streaming whilst abroad.
Exchanging rich multimedia messages while abroad with other customers on GSM/3G networks at home or abroad.
Mobile Broadband :
Connecting Laptops via data cards or USB dongles to the internet to provide access to common applications such as e-mail, Web-browsers & company networks whilst abroad.
MO-Mobile Originated. Refers to any communication whether voice, messaging or data, that is initiated by a Mobile Phone.
Push E-Mail :
Reading and replying to e-mails while abroad, automatically ‘pushed’ to mobile devices such as Black-Berries, personal digital assistants and sophisticated mobile phones.
Google will begin to offer browser – based offline access to its Gmail Webmail application, a much-awaited feature.
This functionality, which will allow people to use the Gmail interface when disconnected from the Internet, has been expected since mid-2007.
That’s when Google introduced Gears, a browser plug-in designed to provide offline access to Web-hosted applications like G mail.
Gears is currently used for offline access to several Web applications from Google, like the Reader RSS manager & the Docs word processor, and from other providers like Zoho, which uses it for offline access to its e-mail and word processing browser-based applications.
For example, in G mail, Users can put labels on messages, as well as tag them with stars to indicate their importance & Google can use that information to determine which messages to download. Sheth estimates that in most cases Gmail will download several thousand messages, preferring those that are more recent as well. Depending on the amount of messages users have on their accounts, they may get downloads going back two months or two years, he said.
Google will begin to roll out the Gmail offline functionality Tuesday evening and expects to make it available to everybody in a few days, whether they use Gmail in its standalone version or as part of the Apps collaboration and communication suite for organizations.
How Activate This Feature :::
To activate the off-line functionality, users of standalone Gmail service and the standard Apps edition should click “settings” after logging on to their Gmail account. There, they should click on the “Labs” tab, select “Enable” next to “Offline Gmail” & click “Save Changes.” A new “Offline” link will then appear in the right-hand corner of the account interface. Users of the Education and Premier Apps versions will have to wait for their Apps administrators to enable Gmail Labs for everyone on the domain first.
Generally all Pen-Drive or Flash Disk run in FAT 32 format System. also Flash Disk Format in FAT format. But if wish to use NTFS Format, of course should be Use. for NTFS format, at first click on the right button, then go properties / hardware option & select the current Pen Drive or Flash Disk, then from Properties\Policies, select Optimize for Performance, Then Click Ok.
Then the Pen Drive or Flash drive Use The NTFS System.
Note :: before do the format of Flash Disk or Pen drive, must remove Your important data, otherwise data are corrupted or delete.
Generally I use PDF Converter which name is Convert Doc. This Software is free but good. easily get Update file of this software if Have any INTERNET Connection. by this Software Anybody convert MS WORD File to PDF & Many More. but when need PDF file convert to MS WORD or other, Then easily Convert that Format…..
This Converter Software “Convert Doc” find at this site below given
How To Convert Power-Point Presentation to video file?
Wondershare PPT. To Video Software is a powerful Power-Point converter which enables users to burn PPT files to videos freely from the ready-made PowerPoint slide-show easily & quickly. The free version only allows conversion to the following formats ::
WMV – Windows Media Video (*.wmv)
MOV – Quick Time Video (*.mov)
MKV- (Matroska) Video (*.mkv) ASF […]
A further problem with bigger disks is the large amount of wasted space or “slack”. Since there are a fixed number of clusters available, larger disks mean that the cluster size has to be increased in order to fill the available space. However, this results in more and more unutilized disk space since a typical file is rarely close to an even multiple of a cluster size. For example, a FAT32 system uses 16 KB clusters for partition sizes between 16 and 32 GB. A 20 KB file would require two 16 KB clusters actually occupying 32 KB of space. A mere 1 KB file still requires 16 KB of space. A typical large disk might have 30% or even 40% of its space wasted this way. Making smaller partitions alleviates slack but with 200 GB disks now common, and ever-bigger ones on the way, partitioning is no longer a practical solution.
Another problem is file fragmentation. Although a file may require several clusters, the clusters need not be in close physical proximity on the disk. When a file is loaded to the disk the operating system chooses unused clusters wherever it finds them. If many files consist of widely separated parts, the time required to retrieve them for program use inevitably slows the system (hence the need for defragging).
It has to be remembered that the FAT system was first devised when the computer environment was very different from what it is today. Indeed, the PC as we know it did not even exist. FAT was intended for systems with very little RAM and small disks. It required much less in the way of system resources than did the file systems in Unix and other big computer systems and did its job well when systems were small. NTFS and Windows XP are practical for consumer PCs today only because the available resources of RAM and hard drive size have reached levels far exceeding anything imagined when FAT was first put into use.
Actually, the FAT system has been enjoying something of a come-back. Thumb or flash drives have become very common and these are of a size that makes the FAT system useful. The smaller sizes are even formatted in FAT16.
In the early 1990’s Microsoft, recognizing that DOS based Windows was inadequate for the much heavier demands of business and industry, began work on different software designed for much larger systems than the home PC. At first this was a joint effort with IBM, using what became IBM OS/2 & employing a file system named HPFS (High Performance File System). As we all know, the cooperative attempt did not work out and the two companies soon went their own way. Microsoft developed the various Windows NT versions, which then morphed into Windows 2000 and now Windows XP. Each one of these operating systems has its own version of the file system NTFS, which has also undergone evolution.
Going into the details of NTFS architecture would be too overwhelming for this current article so I will limit myself to a few points. NTFS is much more flexible than FAT. Its system areas are almost all files instead of the fixed structures used in FAT. Since files are used, the system areas can be modified, enlarged or moved as is needed. An example of one of the several system files is the Master File Table (MFT). The MFT is a sort of relational database with a variety of information about all the files on the disk. If a file is small (1 KB or less) the MFT may even hold the file itself. For larger files NTFS uses clusters in assigning disk space but in a way different from FAT. The cluster size will not normally exceed 4 KB. A type of individual file compression is built in so that the problems with slack do not arise.
Because it is intended for multi-user environments, NTFS has much more security built in. For example, the XP Professional version (not the Home version) allows permissions and encrypting to be applied to individual files. While much more secure, XP is accordingly much harder to tinker with. That makes trouble-shooting and system tweaking more problematical. It also means that the user has to be very careful when setting up passwords and permissions on a system. Forgetting a password has much more serious consequences than it did in Windows 98.
The MFT & other System files occupy quite a bit of space so NTFS is not intended for small disks. Also the amount of memory required is substantial. These system overhead requirements, which formerly limited the use of Windows NT to larger computers, have largely disappeared as a factor with newer PCs and their much larger amounts of RAM and very large hard drives.
NTFS Give More Benefit such as :
1. Give More Security;
2. Virus Cannot Attack Frequently & Quickly;
3. Latest XP version can run smoothly;
4. Windows Open More Firstly;
5. Windows made by Encrypted file & this Encrypted file can run quickly & better firstly run in NTFS System but in FAT System cannot read Encrypted File, or this when FAT /FAT32 System used in XP then run slowly & maximum virus can easily attack the file and spread virus in the system.
- A desktop PC or laptop should be locate in a room, where is cool & dry place.
- The desktop PC should have an airflow buffer space all around. It doesn’t need to be more than a few inches wide but make sure that you can allow ample air space around the PC, avoiding draughty & dusty areas.
- Because the Desktop PC’s cords and cables can be a hazard to you and other people, keep them together and tucked away to protect the cords, the PC, you & others.
- When a desktop PC is powered up and down frequently, the heating and cooling can stress the motherboard and other electronics, leading to intermittent problems from degradation and eventual catastrophic failures. Avoid powering the system on and off frequently.
- Most new PCs have many energy-saving features built into the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), chipset, and operating system, such as suspending the hard disk and monitor. These features not only save electricity, but they also extend the life of the PC and its components.
- Always the desktop PC or Laptop will connect to the alternating current (AC) power source through a surge suppressor or an Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS). This UPS always will protect the PC from possible damage caused by electrical spikes, surge, blackouts and brownouts.
- Always wear an antistatic wrist or ankle strap when working inside the PC’s case to avoid possible damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD).
- Always before shut down the operating system, must close any open applications and power off, unplug the cable of Desktop PC from its power source.
- Never place a PC & especially it’s monitor or stereo speakers, near any strongly magnetized objects, which can distort the image and sound produce by the monitor or speakers and possibly eventually damage disk storage devices as well.
- Always shut down the desktop PC, before connecting or disconnecting a serial, parallel, or video device. Universal Serial Bus (USB) and fire wire devices can be hot plugged and are a better choice for devices that need to be removed and replaced often.
- Always try to use better, update & registered software but if you use free software, then must you’ll confirm that the software publishers is renowned or remarkable software company.
- Always open your Windows Firewall, if you feel unsecured, you can use extra brand best firewall such as comodo firewall, iolo firewall, kaspersky security suite. But now, windows firewall is best and give better performance.
- Always try to use the better & best Anti-virus Software / Security Suite such as Microsoft Essential, Kaspersky Internet Security, Bitdefender Security Suite. If you unable to buy this security suite, you can use the best free Security Suite; Microsoft Essential, Bitdefender Free edition, AVG, Forticlient Endpoint security Suite.
- Always back up important data and software in a CD, DVD or Blue Ray Disk. But now it is best to do backup all data in Internet mail storage.
GPRS Class Types :
The class of the device determines the speed at which GPRS can be used.
For example, the majority of GPRS terminals will be able to
- download data at speeds of up to 24Kbps (kilobytes per second).
- At the higher end, speeds are theoretically possible up to 171.2 k bit/sec
- when 8 slots are assigned at the same time to a single user. In reality 40-50Kbps.
GPRS that mean General Packet Radio Service. Generally it uses radio frequency & speed First.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is the world’s most ubiquitous wireless data service, available now with almost every GSM network. GPRS is a connectivity solution based on Internet Protocols that supports a wide range of enterprise and consumer applications.
In Bangladesh, GPRS is a new service which Given Different Cell Phone Company. It is now favored to Everyone.
Generally I Use GPRS Modem such as MobiData GPRS. When You install the Modem & It’s PC Suite Software, Then Use this Settings
GPRS Setting :
For Banglalink :
Profile Name : blweb
Access Point Number [APN] : *99***1#
If U use Your Mobile Set as Modem Then Use WAP :
WAP Settings :
Profile Name : blwap
Access Point Number [APN] : blwap
proxy/ Gateway / Address : 10.10.55.34 or
Port : 8799
GRAMEEN PHONE [GP] :
IF You Use Grameen Phone’s GPRS, Then Simply Connected with GPRS in Your PC. If You Use GPRS Modem such as MobiData GPRS. When You install the Modem & It’s PCSuite Software, Then Use this Settings
That Settings Below as :
Profile Name : gpinternet
Access Point Number [APN] : *99***1#
GPRS Give Major Facilities Such as :
With throughput rates of up to 40 kbps, users have a similar access speed to a dial-up modem, but with the convenience of being able to connect from anywhere.
- GPRS gives advanced, feature Such they are
- Rich data services such as color Internet browsing,
- E-mail on the move, powerful visual communications such as video streaming;
- Multimedia messages & location-based services.
For operators, the adoption of GPRS is a fast and cost-effective strategy that not only supports the real first wave of mobile Internet services, but also represents a big step towards 3GSM (or wideband-CDMA) networks and services.
EDGE is Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows increased data transmission rates and improved data transmission reliability. EDGE is generally classified as 2.75G, although it is part of ITU’s 3G definition. EDGE has been introduced into GSM networks around the world since 2003, initially by AT&T in the United States.
EDGE can be used for any Packet Switched application, such as an Internet connection. High-speed data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS’ increased data capacity. EDGE Circuit Switched is a possible future development.
Now a days, In Our Bangladesh, EDGE facility Given Only GrameenPhone [GP]. Other Operators after few times use this facility. Also Banglalink start & given this facility after a few days.
- Data continuous Up & Down in EDGE Internet System,
- Billing is costly, because more data continuous pass, sometimes more unnecessary rust data bit pass by this EDGE facility, that’s why bill go to Up.
- Internet Link sometimes disconnected
3 GSM is the latest addition to the GSM family. 3 GSM enables the provision of mobile multimedia services such as music, TV and video, rich entertainment content and Internet access. The technology on which 3GSM services are delivered is based on a GSM network enhanced with a Wideband-CDMA (W-CDMA) air interface – the over-the-air transmission element. Global operators, in conjunction with the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) standards organization, have developed 3GSM as an open standard.
What is 3GSM? – Is it the same as 3G, UMTS, W-CDMA and IMT-2000, or are they different in some way?
Third Generation [3G] is the generic term used for the next generation of mobile communications systems. These have been created to support the effective delivery of a range of multimedia services. In addition, they provide more efficient systems for the over-the-air transmission of existing services, such as voice, text and data that are available today.
Data Speeds are enabled by 3GSM?
The use of the W-CDMA air interface significantly increases. The Data Transfer Rate of GSM networks, offering average down link rates of around 300 kbit/s.
What services are enabled by 3GSM systems?
TV and video on demand, High-speed multimedia data services and mobile Internet access are just a few of the offerings available to users. 3GSM expands the potential for content-rich information and communication services, Providing Enhanced Capacity for Traditional voice services.
3GSM bridges the gap between the wireless world & the computing/Internet world,
Creating the possibility of seamless inter-operation between the two.
The 3G Evolution describes the seamless, compatible evolutionary path of enhancements to the existing 3 GSM technology family. These will offer GSM operators higher data transfer speeds and greater system capacity that, in turn, will enhance their ability to provide mobile broadband multimedia services.
An evolutionary path within the GSM family of technologies delivers the generic benefits of GSM such as global roaming, seamless billing, network compatibility and huge economies of scale. The 3G evolutionary path has a series of well-defined technology enhancements.
The first to be realised is the down link performance improvement – High Speed Down link Packet Access (HSDPA).
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